Category Archives: Matauranga Maori

Principles of Adult Learning

Secondly….these theories fit in with the principles of adult learning (Knowles, 1990; Knowles, Holton & Swanson, 1998). These include the following understandings:

  • Adults are self-directed learners and are capable of independent learning.
  • Adult learners draw on their previous experiences of life and learning and bring these experiences to bear in new learning.
  • Learning needs to be directly related to the development tasks of an adult’s social roles and directly applicable to real-life issues.
  • Motivation factors for adult learners are deep-seated and internally derived.

Finally the concepts of Maatauranga Maaori could be applied to the design of this course, especially the concept of ako which implies learn and instruct at the same time and the concept of tuakana-teina where teaching and learning can be peer-to-peer, able to less able, expert to beginner, familiar to less familiar etc.

Knowles, M. (1990). The Adult Learner: A Neglected Species (4th Edn). Houston: Gulf Publishing.
Knowles, M. S., Holton, E. F. and Swanson, R. A. (1998). The Adult Learner: The Definitive Classic in Adult Education and Human Resource Development. Houston: Gulf Publishing.